Petroleum drilling equipment is divided into systems of rotation, hoisting, circulation, power and transmission, and control by function.
The main equipment is a turntable mounted on the wellhead of the drilling rig. When it rotates, the drill string and drill bit are driven into rotary drilling through the kelly rod. When the downhole power drilling tool is used to drive the drill bit to rotate, the turntable is used to bear the reverse torque.
A set of lifting equipment composed of winch, derrick, overhead crane, traveling block, hook, wire rope, etc. The winch is mainly used for lifting the drilling tool, casing and controlling the weight of the bit when drilling. The derrick is used to place lifting equipment and tools such as overhead cranes and suspended traveling tackles, hooks, etc., as well as to lift off and store pipe strings. The crown block and traveling block are a set of double pulleys. The oil drilling equipment is used to reduce the tension on the winch steel wire rope. The number of steel ropes for the double pulleys of large and medium rigs is generally 8-12 strands.
It consists of mud pump, high-pressure mud pipeline, hose, faucet, drill string and mud solid control equipment. The function is to maintain mud circulation, flush the bottom of the well, and transfer the injected high-pressure mud energy to the bottom of the well.
Solid control equipment
It is used to remove the useless solid particles in the mud returned from the well. Commonly used equipment includes vibrating screen, sand remover, desilter, deaerator and centrifugal separator. In the late 1970s, an automatic mud preparation system began to be used in conjunction with the well control device, which could reliably control the wellbore at any time and automatically keep the mud weight constant. When a blowout sign appears, it can automatically adjust the specific gravity of the mud and other properties.
Power and transmission system
Oil drilling equipment includes power machines and transmission units. Power engines are mainly diesel engines, electric motors or gas turbines. The transmission unit has several types of mechanical transmissions such as chains, belts, gears, hydraulic transmissions and electric transmissions, which transmit power to working machines such as winches, turntables, mud pumps, etc.